Community Safety Programme in Border Areas
Locations: Turkana, West Pokot and Karamoja (Uganda)
Danish Demining Group (DDG) Kenya started implementing the Community safety project in July 2013. This was with support from the Norwegian Royal Ministry of Foreign Affairs (NMFA) after an initial needs assessment revealed the need for improving community safety in areas bordering Uganda where DDG Uganda had already started its operations in 2010.
The first cycle of community safety projects in Kenya was between January 2013 and December 2013 and the second cycle runs from June 2014 to December 2015. The project has in this latest phase contributed to the following results:
- Increased community awareness of the implications of continued inter-tribal armed violence.
- Enhanced bottom-up approach to safety governance through community led safety planning and implementation processes.
- Strengthened relationship between security providers and local communities.
- Strengthened local capacity for conflict management and peace.
- Improved cross border conflict management.
Young Empowered and Safe (YES!)
Locations: Kakuma Refugee Camp
Danish Refugee Council (DRC) and DDG are piloting elements of a new joint regional approach to addressing youth at risk of marginalisation, criminalisation or radicalisation - Young Empowered and Safe (YES!) - in Kakuma Refugee Camp, from September 2014 to September 2015. Activities include tailored conflict management education to priority youth and security providers; promoting dialogue between refugee youth.
Locations: Isiolo, Marsabit, Mandera, Wajir and Garissa, Kenya and Sool and Southern Togdheer regions of Somaliland.
A Conflict Assessment report, carried out by DDG in 2014-15, was funded by the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC) to provide valuable new information and analysis on the role of devolution, oil and gas exploration and large-scale infrastructure development in current or potential future conflicts in northern Kenya and Somalia to key national and local stakeholders. The report provides disaggregated recommendations to international actors, government and civil society on how conflict dynamics and risks may be mitigated.
DDG is using the assessment findings to engage in dialogue with the national cohesion and integration commission and exploration companies and other key stakeholders to the oil development process in Northern Kenya.
Building on the research DDG has carried out two further research projects; one on the borderlands along the Kenya Somalia border and the other on the potential impacts of the LAPSSET corridor in Kenya with focus on Lamu. DDG is also using the analysis to design community safety and cross border conflict management interventions.
Borderland mapping project
Locations: Kenya-Ethiopia-Somalia borders
The Kenya-Ethiopia-Somalia Borderlands Conflict Mapping Analysis project was conducted by DDG for the UK Conflict Pool from July 2014 to June 2015. The objective of the mapping exercise was to capture patterns and trends on armed incidents on the borders and to test for correlations between types of armed violence and a range of possible conflict drivers.
This project illustrated a number of opportunities and challenges from systematic mapping of conflict and conflict drivers in the borders of the eastern Horn of Africa. These observations have in form the design and conduct of future conflict mapping and conflict prevention and management activities in border regions of Kenya.
Lamu Port and South Sudan Ethiopia Transport Corridor (LAPSSET) Conflict Risk Mapping
The LAPSSET Conflict Risk Mapping pilot project aimed to map conflict risks related to the major changes brought about by the LAPSSET corridor project in Lamu County at the coastal strip, is funded by the Conflict, Stability and Security Fund (CSSF) and will run from September 2015 to March 2016.
Through data collection and mapping of past and present local conflicts, community reliance on local natural resources, community land rights, as well as identifying and analysing local competition over access to jobs, contracts and services, the project analysed how the LAPSSET corridor may impact on local conflict dynamics.
A key part of the analysis was based on a participatory approach which entails local stakeholders’ participation in analysing the data made available and easy to interpret through the mapping tool. The participatory analysis provided the basis for key stakeholder dialogue around conflict risks and how these can be reduced through dialogue and policy-making.
The project approach was based on the theory of change that if information of changes to local conflict dynamics are collected, analysed and shared in an easy to access mapping format, and dialogue amongst key stakeholders on the issue is actively supported, then there will be a more informed inclusive and conflict sensitive public and policy-making debate on the LAPSSET development and its associated risks. If policy-making and public debate is improved, key decision-makers are more likely to take steps to prevent or reduce the associated conflict risks and to exploit opportunities for the improvement of the lives of local communities. The experiences and results from the project has lead to design of another project on addressing conflict issues in Lamu and expanding the mapping of large scale infrastructure to cover a larger part of East Africa.
Kenya Extractive Industries Development Programme (KEIDP) - Community Engagement Pilot
KEIDP CE is a pilot project funded by DFID and managed by Adam Smith International, who contracted a consortium of DDG (consortium lead), Oxfam GB and Cordaid). The project stretches from April to November 2015. The pilot project seeks to develop and tests approaches, processes and tools aimed at enabling expression and recording of community perspectives related to stakeholder engagement around Extractive Industry in Turkana County in North-Western Kenya. It consists of three main components: 1) A Local Community Driven Development (LCDD) model aimed at empowering the population to engage in informed dialogue with County Government and Extractive Industry actors on their development needs, 2) Public Participation aimed at developing recommendations for a guideline on the modalities of realising public participation in natural resource management in Turkana County 3) Public awareness aimed at creating clarity around extractive Industry processes for the local population. A communications protocol was developed and agreed upon by members of the Multi-stakeholder Communications Forum (MSCF), including representatives from civil society, County and National Government and Oil Companies to guide the communications campaign under this component. The results of the pilot project will be fed into DFID’s development of a longer term programme on Extractive Industries development in Kenya.
Borderlands Conflict Prevention and Management
Locations: Mandera Triangle and Karamoja Cluster
DDG is implementing a Borderlands Conflict Prevention and Management project aimed at contributing to informed and inclusive dialogue among communities and other local stakeholders in borderland areas of the Mandera Triangle and the Karamoja Cluster with the view of contributing to future development of policies and strategies for peace in these two highly fragile and increasingly important areas for regional stability.
The project is funded by the UK Conflict, Security and Stability Fund and runs from mid-September 2015 to March 2016. It has a specific focus on the border areas between Kenya- Somalia and Kenya-Uganda, with the view of expanding the coverage based on lessons learned from this project in a second phase.
The project includes:
- Facilitation of inclusive community consultations on what has and has not worked in terms of promoting peace.
- Visual mapping and dissemination of information on such conflict management, capacities and strategies along with information on local conflict dynamics in the same borderland areas.
- Capacity building of local stakeholders within conflict management, small arms sensitivity and border security management.
- Facilitation of multi-level cross-border dialogue meetings between local stakeholders as well as in-country dialogue meetings between the population and local authorities and security providers.
- Development of policy recommendations on strategies for addressing conflict potential in borderland areas based on lessons learned from stakeholder consultations, capacity building activities and dialogue facilitations.
Conflict prevention around large-scale infrastructure development in East Africa
DDG is implementing a project on Conflict prevention around large-scale infrastructure development in East Africa, which is funded by the UK Conflict, Security and Stability Fund and runs from October 2015 to March 2016
The project builds on the achievements made by DDG and partners under the Lamu Port and South Sudan Ethiopia Transport Corridor (LAPSSET) Conflict Mapping, Lamu pilot project” in two ways:
Firstly, it will build on the GIS conflict risk mapping methodology developed in the pilot project to develop a macro-level conflict risks map focused on large-scale infrastructure projects in Eastern Africa (Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania and (Ethiopia)). This GIS map of large scale infrastructure and conflict patterns in East Africa will provide an overview of where large-scale infrastructure development and existing conflict trends and dynamics overlap and interact and provide the basis for identifying and prioritising conflict prevention and management needs.
Secondly, it will build on the successful initial dialogue process facilitated by DDG and partners in Lamu by enabling more inclusive and better informed dialogue on conflict risks and conflict management opportunities related to the rolling out of large-scale infrastructure development (incl. the LAPSSET project) in the county. Lessons learned from this work will contribute to the development of stakeholder management approaches that can be replicated in other contexts in Eastern Africa where large-scale infrastructure projects are being implemented.
 Local sensitivities may make it necessary to remove Ethiopia from the list. However, collaboration with CEWARN may make it possible.